Because of this emphasis on shared experience in social groupings, social theories are most useful in suggesting ways in which behavior change can be accomplished by addressing social phenomena rather than by attempting to alter the individual.
The interpersonal nature of violence seems to call for explanations or understandings that also are interpersonal.
The privacy of the family reduces the visibility of family interactions and the likelihood of external informal or formal social control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29 4 The Key Proposition A central and oversimplified proposition of an exchange theory approach to corporal punishment is that people hit family members because they can.
The same woman rewarded for pressing charges is punished for doing so in Family Court. Social harmony, then, is only one kind of social experience: On the other hand, violent means to success are portrayed as highly effective and have the additional advantage that violent acts bring social recognition.
Hirschi begins with the assumption that most people are tempted from time to time to engage in deviant behavior—including violence.
Most, if not all, societies are patriarchal and thus grant men more social, economic, and legal power than is granted to women. Policy Implications Due to the great emphasis placed on the role of self-control, or lack thereof, in causing criminal behaviour, social programs aimed at intervening in the lives of young people at an early stage of development are stressed.
The effect of religion on delinquency was further questioned by Benda and Corwynwho found increased religiosity to be a strong predictor of violence among adolescents. In contrast, adolescent partner violence was associated with reactive aggression, or aggression categorized as defensive behaviour in response to perceived aggression.
High stress levels, rapid technological, social, and economic change, and conflict between social groups make sense as contributors to violence. Some social theorists have attempted to create "metatheories" that incorporate and reconcile a number of more limited, specific theories.
More specifically, the authors were keenly interested in examining how parental monitoring impacted aggression leading to later violent offending.
Stanford University Press, Individuals are more likely to use violence at home when they expect the costs of being violent to be less than the rewards. The authors conclude by suggesting that early intervention, in the form of differing parenting strategies, could indeed lead to the prevention of later adolescent violent offending.
Tests of Exchange Theory Control Theory The assumptions and propositions of control theory were developed and defined by Hirschi to explain deviant behavior. Goode explains that all social systems rest, to one degree or another, on force and its use. Subsystem contributions would be seen as organized in ways that both encouraged violent acts and imposed limits on violence.
These authors similarly found that school attachment, amongst other social control factors, protected young people from violent behaviour. Violence is a social phenomenon. For some this realization comes fairly quickly while others take longer to overcome such culturally constructed notions. For much of their interaction with their children, parents are physically larger and more powerful than their children, and have more economic, personal, and social resources.
Thus, there is empirical support for the main propositions of an exchange theory of family violence. These have included initiatives aimed at enhancing parenting skills in order to help parents instill self-control within young children.
Those seeking to test the strength of this theory as it specifically relates to young people have closely examined bonds with family, schools, community, and religion to determine the extent to which such bonds impact offending.
They argued that men battered because they had learned violence in their families as children, and women sought out abusive men because they saw their mothers being abused.
Blau explains that if reciprocal exchange occurs, the interaction continues. Rather than look inside the perpetrator for the causes of violence, social perspectives look in the social situation for factors that may explain why violence is not universal but instead varies in frequency and intensity.
Consequences and control pp.
Abusive Partners Coercive Control Domestic violence comprises a range of behaviors beyond physical and emotional abuse. Role of the Community The role of the community and neighbourhood as agents of social control has also been assessed in the social control literature.
Implications for Prevention and Intervention This article has summarized social understandings of violence, showing ways in which violent acts are linked to the social environment. Similar conclusions were found by Resnick et al.
Stanford University Press, Voluntary self-censorship and an effort to build a realistic community view of violence—while difficult to imagine—offer the potential for system-wide change and virtual elimination of violence in America.
Students who were in classrooms characterized as having stronger supportive and social interactions at the ages of 10 and 11 were less likely to behave violently at the ages of 12 and These, however, are difficult, complex, and rare occurrences.
However, it should be noted that not all of these authors have interpreted these findings as indicative of the strength of the theory in predicting all crimes with a general theory of offending. Nor does this model account for instances in which a husband explodes over trivial issues or starts beating his wife while she is asleep.
Also check the list of domestic violence research topics or all criminal justice research topics. As research in this area has largely found a strong relationship between parental attachment and lower levels of delinquency, providing support to parents in the form of parenting skills training could be an effective step toward addressing youth crime by building strong bonds between parents and children.Theoretical Basis for Family Violence Maren E.
Hyde-Nolan, PhD Tracy Juliao, PhD INTRODUCTION theory, and social isolation theory. Control Theory Control theory is based on the concept that many family conflicts result from an individual’s need to obtain and maintain power and control within.
An exchange theory of family violence is derived from the assumptions and propositions of social exchange theory (Blau ; Homans ; Thibault and Kelley ) and control theory (Hirschi ). Family violence theories (including systems theory, ecological theory, exchange/social control theory, resource theory, and the subculture-of-violence theory) view intimate partner violence as an expression of conflict within the family that can best be understood through examination of social structures contributing to the use of violence.
There has been a decidedly different social response to the abuse of a child and the abuse of an intimate partner, although both forms of violence occur within the family.
Abstract. Violence is not a single kind of activity, but rather a socially defined category of activities that share some common features. This article presents a social perspective on violence that calls attention to the meanings of violence and to other social factors that promote and support or, alternatively, oppose and restrict violence.
Social Control Theory. Social control theory gained prominence during the s as sociologists sought differing conceptions of crime. It was during this period that Travis Hirschi put forth his innovative rendering of control theory, a theory built upon existing concepts of social control.Download